图片 23

NASA女宇航员揭秘空间站如厕系统,称丝毫不令人想念 – NASA,ISS,国际空间站 – IT之家

图片 1国际空间站(ISS)合作开发美国图片 2英国图片 3德国图片 4法国图片 5巴西图片 6加拿大图片 7日本图片 8荷兰图片 9比利时图片 10丹麦图片 11西班牙图片 12意大利图片 13挪威图片 14瑞典图片 15苏/俄图片 16

图片 17

IT之家7月2日消息
刚刚飞到国际空间站的新成员CIMON现在正式开始工作啦,这个魔性的机器人有14组风扇帮助它在失重环境下移动。现在国际空间站的大佬们将这个机器人工作视频回传到地面,真的很魔性。

IT之家7月14日消息 据外媒报道,近日NASA宇航员Randy
Bresnik在国际空间站展示如何在微重力下穿裤子。在地面上这本来是件很容易的事情,不过在太空中,就变得有趣起来。

美国宇航局的宇航员Peggy
Whitson或许拥有着最远离这个世界的工作,但是她已经坦率的揭露了生活在国际空间站中最奇异而且最令人震惊的缺点之一,那就是宇航员如何在失重环境中使用厕所。

  • 名称:国际空间站(ISS)
  • 制造商:多国合作
  • 发射日期:1998年11月20日
  • 发射地点:哈萨克斯坦,拜科努尔;佛罗里达州,肯尼迪航天中心
  • 轨道:400公里(250英里),轨道倾角51.6°
  • 运载火箭:质子K,航天飞机

There have been numerous experiments into plant growth in space. It’s
important to scientists on the ground because it can help us better
understand how plants function which can help us to grow food more
efficaciously. It’s also important to NASA, because when we finally
start sending astronauts away from low Earth orbit, they may need to
grow their own food and maintain their own regenerable atmosphere.

(IT之家移动客户端用户若无法观看视频,请点此查看)

Randy
Bresnik周四在他的推特上发了一段视频,这段视频显示他正在穿裤子。他表示,宇航员也是普通人,只不过他们依靠世界各地的专家们,才有机会做一些非凡的事情。

美国宇航局的这位宇航员在轨道中度过了令人震惊的665天,她已经打破了女性单次飞行最长时间的记录,Whitson在2017年9月3日返回地球,当天日出后不久她所乘坐的联盟号就降落在了哈萨克斯坦。

参数

  • 长度:108米
  • 中心直径:88米

人们已经做了许许多多关于植物在太空生长的实验,因为这些实验帮助那些在地表科学家们更好了解植物的运作方式以帮助我们更有效的生产事物,对于美国航天航空局(NASA)来说了解这些同样重要,因为当我们开始将航天员送往低地球轨道,他们就有必要种植自己的植物以及维持空气的可再生。

机器人的全名是Crew Interactive Mobile
Companion,也叫西蒙。它看起来就像配有屏幕的球形扬声器,如果你用一个屏幕来代替扬声器,屏幕上用简单的线条显示出一副卡笑脸,而内置的14组风扇能够帮助其在国际空间站内四处移动。

(IT之家移动客户端用户若无法观看视频,请点此查看)

当她在太空中生活的时候,她也必须掌握一个微妙的过程,那就是如何在太空中上厕所。据Whitson博士称,成为国际空间站研究团队的一员不仅令人满意而且令人兴奋。但是她也坦言,她不会想念那座造价1.9万美元的厕所,安装在轨道实验室中的这个厕所的官方名字为废弃物和卫生整理舱。

有效载荷

  • 有压力运输,最多7000千克(15430磅)。

Gravity is not the only difference between the Earth environment and
the ISS environment. In the closed atmosphere of a spacecraft,
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can accumulate. VOCs need to be
scrubbed from the air or seed production will suffer. There are
elevated radiation levels that can cause mutations and affect growth.
An experiment on Mir, that involved storing tomato seeds in space for
six years found mutation rates up to 20 times higher in the space
seeds than in the control seeds stored on the ground. And there are
the spectral effects of using only electric lighting.

西蒙能够在失重的环境中移动,还懂得欣赏音乐,可以很轻松的和宇航员交流。除此之外,它还能够提供技术帮助、警示系统故障。

平时人们在穿裤子的时候都是将一条腿塞进裤管,然后再把另一条腿塞进去。不过在太空失重的环境下,只需要飘起来,然后两腿一蹬,裤子就穿好了。

这位宇航员称:“空间站还无法与真正的旅馆相比,我把它称为野营之旅。”在失重环境下做任何事情都会遭遇到的问题就是,物品如果没有进行固定就会飞走并且到处反弹。空间站的厕所也不例外的会遭遇这一问题,因此宇航员会尽可能多的配备各种工具来保持空间站的整洁和卫生。

结构尺寸

  • 桁架和舱体,108.5米×88.4米(355.9英尺×290英尺)

  国际空间站(International Space
Station,ISS)是一项由六个太空机构联合推进的国际合作计划,也指运行于距离地面360公里的地球轨道上的该计划发射的航天器。

相比地表与国际空间站(ISS)的环境来说重力不是唯一不同的因素,在封闭宇宙飞船大气中,可挥发的有机物质(VOCs)可以积累下来,而这些物质必须将其从大气或者种子产物中去除(控制变量),同时宇宙环境中有过量的射线可以导致植物的变异以及影响植物的生长,Mir做了一个实验,它将土豆的种子分别贮藏在太空与地表六年发现太空种子的突变率是地表的20倍或更高,这里还有一个关于光谱的影响太空中因为只使用了电气照明。

Bresnik还表示,虽然不是那么特别,但同时将两条腿塞进两个裤管是我们在没有重力的情况下可以做到的独特事情之一。

她声称,借助空间站的厕所进行小便相对容易一些,这多亏了用于收集尿液的漏斗装置和抽风机。似乎国际空间站的任何东西都不会浪费,收集起来的尿液在经过一个多周时间的过滤之后,会重新成为饮用水。

结构特点研制历程

图片 18

据了解,Bresnik在国际空间站上已经停留了近150天,之前还在国际空间站上玩儿指尖陀螺。

Whitson博士称:“我们想要打造一种密闭的循环系统,这意味着我们必须循环利用所有的水。”大约80%到85%的液体排泄物被循环成水,剩下的会被处理掉。但是当宇航员使用厕所大便时,会面临一个更大的挑战。

结构特点

国际空间站由下列部分组成:俄罗斯”进步-M45″、”联盟-TM23″、”进步-M-C01″飞船,俄罗斯的”晨星”号服务舱、”曙光”号工作舱,美国的”团结”号连接舱和”女神”号实验舱、俄”黎明”号小型实验舱等。重量400吨。

Because plants also respire, we have to have fans to circulate the
air around the plants so that they don’t suffocate on their own
exhalations. Even failed experiments can provide us with better
understanding. An experiment to study plant lignin failed to produce
healthy plant materials but taught us more about providing effective
air movement.

Whitson博士称:“大便更具挑战性是因为你必须努力对准一个相当小的目标。”狭窄的空间站厕所是通过一个大约盘子大小的厕所孔吸收所有排泄物的。宇航员需要使用绑腿固定住自己,并且确信真空吸尘器一样的厕所能够正在工作。

研制历程

国际空间站的设想是1983年由美国总统里根首先提出的,经过近十余年的探索和多次重新设计,直到苏联解体、俄罗斯加盟,国际空间站才于1993年完成设计,开始实施。2012年5月,美国首次向国际空间站发射商业飞船。

**因为植物在无时无刻保持着呼吸,所以在ISS中我们不得不安置了一台风扇以使的周围的空气流通是植物免于被自己的呼出的气体弄窒息,即便是失败的实验也能够帮助我们更好的理解科学,一个研究木质素(lignin)的实验在培养植物材料的阶段失败了却让我们了解了提供有效空气流通的重要性。
**

在宇航员完成如厕之后,排泄物会密封在一个塑料袋中然后由宇航员进行处理。但是系统故障时常会发生,这对于想要上厕所的宇航员来说是相当麻烦的事情。

In the absence of weight, there is poor water and air movement
through the rooting media. One complication we’ve discovered is that
in microgravity, the water distributes evenly throughout the soil.
This can actually prevent air from reaching the roots. That’s why
‘Veggie’ uses wicks – so that water is only distributed to selected
areas. It’s also why a lot of study has gone into selecting the best
soils. Fine grained soils hold too much water and coarse soils hold
too much air.

Whitson博士透漏称:“当厕所中的排泄物装满,你就必须戴上胶皮手套并且压紧它们。”而且有时候,宇航员不得不捕捉那些在狭窄空间站中漂浮的垃圾。空间站厕所收集的固体排泄物会与空间站收集的其它垃圾混合在一起,并且发射回地球,它们在进入大气层时会带来壮观的焰火。

**
由于在太空失重,只有很少的水分和流动的空气通过生根培养基,一个失重照成的并发症就是水分会均匀分布在土壤中使得气体无法到达根系,这就“Veggie”(一项太空植物研究)使用wicks,以便让水分布在选择的区域,这就是为什么许多研究选择最好的土壤,好的细粒土保持了太多的水分而粗粒土保持了太多的空气。**

据美国宇航局称,所有的宇航员在空间站上都与在地球上一样自觉遵守着卫生规定。宇航员正常进行着睡觉、吃饭、洗澡和上厕所的活动,唯一的缺点就是需要漂浮在半空中。

图片 19

Tropism is a growth response between a plant and external
stimulus. There are numerous forms of tropism and understanding each
of them greatly affects our abilities to grow healthy plants. One of
the cool things about experimenting on the ISS is that we can study
each form of tropism in isolation. On Earth, gravity tends to
overwhelm the other influences.

向性:一种植物生长方式取决于植物本身及外界环境的刺激,植物有许多的极性,它们对我们种植出健康的植物有巨大的影响,说一件有趣的ISS经历,我们可以在隔离(isolation)的环境中研究各种向性,而在地球上,重力往往要大于其他的因素。

Gravitropism is when the external stimulus is gravity. Plants
have a hormone called auxin. In a gravity environment, if a plant is
oriented on its side, auxin will accumulate in the stem and stimulate
cell expansion that will result in the stem bending to point upwards
so that the stem grows towards light (the sun). Similarly, auxin
prevents cell elongation in the roots and that encourages roots to
grow downwards.

向地性:当存在重力时,植物有一种称之为生长素(auxin)的植物激素,在重力环境中,当植物极性分化后,生长素会在茎中积累然后刺激细胞伸长,导致茎干发生弯曲向上生长以便植物能够向着光源的方向生长,同样的生长素能够防止细胞伸长以及促进根系向下生长。

When plants grow, they do so in an oscillatory or helical manner
called circumnutation. We can easily see this in vines that grow
around an object. An interesting experiment was done aboard the ISS to
study this in the absence and presence of gravity in the space
environment. Arabidopsis plants were grown from seeds in space and
observed both in the normal microgravity environment and in a
centrifuge that simulated 0.8 g. While under the 0.8 g, the plants
experienced circumnutation amplitudes 5-10 times as high as in
microgravity. Within the endodermis of the planet there are
gravisensing cells. On a larger scale, this may mean that vines cannot
twine in space.

当植物生长时,会发生摇摆或者旋转方式叫做回旋运动(circumnutation),我们可以容易的看到这些藤围绕着一个物体生长,在ISS上我们做了一个有趣的实验,分别在失重(absence
gravity)和存在重力(presence
gravity)的条件下,拟南芥(Arabidopsis)在太空中发芽,观察它们在失重环境和在0.8g刺激的离心机(centrifuge)中的表现,在0.8g刺激下,植物有规律的(experienced)回旋运动振幅5-10次远比失重(microgravity)环境要高,植物内胚层(endodermis)是重力敏感(gravisensing)细胞,也就是说,这意味着藤无法在失重的环境下缠绕(twine)。

An interesting thing learned from studying cucumber growth in space
involves a structure called a peg that develops immediately after
germination, between the root and stem. This peg has long been
observed and the scientists were interested to see if it was dependent
on gravity. What they learned was that each seed is structured to grow
two pegs – one on each side – but in the presence of gravity, only one
peg develops, whereas both are activated in microgravity.

可以从黄瓜(cucumber)的研究中发现一些有趣的事,太空中生长的黄瓜在发芽后在根和茎的地方会长出具有一个被称为夹子(peg)的结构,科学家们一直在观察这些peg是如何受到重力的影响的,他们只知道每颗种子会葬两个pag,左右各一个,但在重力环境下只有一边的pag会生长,而在失重环境下两边都会。

图片 20

图片 21

图片 22

Time elapsed photography of the GHabs on the ISS and on Earth on day-1,
shows initial germination and a visible small root in the alfalfa seed
on the ground (right) compared to the seed on the ISS (left). Image
courtesy of NASA.

图片 23

This image shows two alfalfa seeds (smaller seeds) and two radish seeds
(larger seeds) that are part of the classroom kit that will be used by
students participating in CSI-01 experiment. Image courtesy of NASA.

*Studies indicate that a plant’s perception of gravity is related to
the presence of starch in the organelles within the cell structure of
the roots. Roots with starch appear to be more sensitive to gravity
that roots that are missing the starch. *

研究表明地球的重力的感知与根结构细胞器中的淀粉(starch)有关,那些根中富含淀粉的相比不含淀粉对重力更为敏感。

Hydrotropism is when the external stimulus is water. Cucumber
plants are particularly dependent on gravity to initiate growth. An
experiment called Hyrop Tropi was conducted in the Japanese laboratory
aboard ISS, in 2010. The experiment was designed to investigate two
major objectives; one was to see if roots of cucumber seedlings would
bend toward water when they grow in microgravity, and the other was to
identify Auxin-regulated genes. This was a neat example of an
experiment that needed microgravity. It would be difficult to study
the role of water on Earth, because we can’t easily remove the effects
of gravity, but in space we could ensure that water was the only
stimulus. Here’s a brief summary of the results, from the principal
investigator.

向水性:当外界刺激为水时,黄瓜特别的依赖水来启动生长,一项正在进行的叫做Hyrop
Tropi
的日本实验项目在ISS上进行,2010年时,项目设计研究了两个主要的对象,一个是研究在失重环境下黄瓜根系萌发的轻水性,其他组则负责识别生长素调控基因,这是一个严格的(neat)实验因此需要在失重环境下进行,这与在地球上研究水的角色十分的不同,因为我们不可能轻易的摆脱引力的影响。但是在太空中我们则可以让刺激唯一,这是一则论文的简要概括。

  • The results showed that roots hydrotropically bent toward the
    moistened plastic foam under microgravity conditions, whereas they
    grew straight along the direction of gravitational force under 1G
    conditions. The hydrotropic response in microgravity appeared to
    be greater in the NaCl chamber compared with that in H2O chamber,
    but they did not differ statistically. Furthermore, CsIAA1 gene
    differentially expressed in the hydrotropically bending roots; the
    expression was much greater on the concave side than on the convex
    side. On the other hand, no asymmetric expression of CsIAA1 in the
    roots grown under 1G conditions were detected. These results
    revealed that roots become very sensitive to moisture gradients in
    microgravity and that auxin redistribution and differential auxin
    response take place during hydrotropic response. Also, the results
    imply that the hydrotropic response can be used as a means of root
    growth regulation for plant production in space. (Hydrotropism
    and Auxin-Inducible Gene expression in Roots Grown Under
    Microgravity
    Conditions)

结果表明在失重与1G引力(gravitational)环境下根系在湿润可弹性海绵的方向生长研究亲水性,亲水性在失重环境下表现出比H2O室更大的NaCl室,但是它们并没有出现统计学上的不同,此外,CsIAA1基因在弯曲的根中表现不同;表达在弯曲的凹面相比在凸面更巨大,而在1G引力的环境下基因并没有非对称(asymmetric)表达,这些结果发现在失重环境下湿度的渐变(gradient)会会使根系变得更加敏感,并照成生长素的重新分配,在亲水响应中不同的生长素长生,并且,这项研究暗示着向水性反应可以作为一项有意义的根系生长调节在太空的植物种植中。

Phototropism is when the external stimulus is light. In some of
the pictures from space you’ll notice that the lighting is red-blue in
the plant habitat. Red-blue light that has been deemed most
efficacious for photosynthesis.

向光性:当外界刺激为光照的时候,从一些宇宙的照片可以发现宇宙发出的光为红蓝光,红蓝光被认为是光合作用最高效的光源。

图片 24

Other tropisms that can be studied are chemotropism (chemicals),
thigmotropism (touch), and electrotropism (electric fields)In April, a
SpaceX cargo vehicle delivered a plant growth chamber that the payload
investigators call ‘Veggie
*’. The astronauts will use it to grow
foods. ‘Veggie’ utilizes small bags of soil with inserted wicks to
provide water. *

其它可以被研究的的向性包括化学向性(chemotropism),扰(触碰)向性(thigmotropisum)及电场向性(electropisumn),四月份,一枚运输植物生长室(chamber)的叫做“Veggie”的SpaceX运载火箭,宇航员将会使用其生产事物,“veggie”利用穿插着灯芯的突然以提供水分。

One area that we don’t yet have a lot of understanding is how much
the spaceflight environment will influence metabolite production.
Metabolites affect flavor and nutritional quality. The plan is to
return early ‘Veggie’ crops to Earth to study the metabolites.

一个我们还不太了解的领域就是太空飞船环境如何的影响植物的代谢(metabolite),代谢影响着事物的味道(flavor)以及营养物质的含量,于是计划尽早将“Veggie”作物运回地球研究测定。

How Do Plants Grows in Microgravity?——Hideyuki Takahashi
I am interested in how plants adapt to and evolve in the space
environment. Previous spaceflight experiments have confirmed that, as
long as the environment is controlled with the right hardware, seeds can
germinate, the resulting seedlings can grow, and the mature plants can
bloom and bear fruit in space. However, the degree of growth is a
different matter. A microgravity environment has a great impact on plant
growth and development, and it eventually affects plant yield.

When plants migrated from the sea approximately 450 million years ago,
they became land organisms. To do so, however, they had to overcome
various environmental stresses, such as drought, in their terrestrial
life. In order to avoid such stresses, sessile terrestrial plants
evolved strategies to perceive light, water and gravity, and to respond
to them by changing their growth orientation. Among these adaptive
strategies, is gravimorphogenesis, in which plant growth is influenced
by gravity. Examples of this phenomenon are: gravitropism, where roots
grow downward and stems grow upward; circumnutation, where the stem or
the root tips display helical or spiral movement (for example, a
climbing vine shows remarkable circumnutation); and peg formation, which
helps cucurbitaceous seedlings shed their seed coats . The space
environment is an ideal place to study these mechanisms of
gravity-dependent growth in the development of plants.

Gravitropism is a bending response, accomplished by differential growth
of plant organs in response to gravity. On the space shuttle flight
STS-95, which included Astronaut Chiaki Mukai, experiments were
conducted to compare ground-grown and space-grown Arabidopsis and rice.
On Earth, aerial parts of the plant (shoots) grow upward while roots
grow downward. However, the experiments showed that in a microgravity
environment, the growth direction is unregulated, and some roots even
extend in the same direction as the aerial stems . In the case of root
gravitropism, the hypothesis is that gravity is perceived by root cap
cells, called columella, which are found at the root tips. Within the
columella cells, starch-filled amyloplasts settle due to gravity,
causing a change in the flow of the plant hormone auxin.

In essence, auxin characteristically flows in a fixed direction, from an
aerial shoot, including the apical meristem and young leaves, towards
the roots, through a central cylinder. After flowing down to the root
tips by this polar transport, auxin begins to flow in the opposite
direction, as if making a U-turn, along the roots. When roots are
inclined and given gravitational stimulus, however, U-turning auxin
tends to go downward instead of upward. As a result, the concentration
of auxin increases in the lower part of the elongation zone in the
inclined roots, causing a differential growth between the lower part and
the upper part; the growth rate of the lower part decreases compared to
that of the upper part causing the root to bend downward. This is how
plant roots on Earth grow downward in response to gravity. However, in
microgravity, amyloplasts do not settle within the root cap cells, so
gravity is not perceived, nor is asymmetric auxin distribution induced.
This is why, presumably, growth direction is uncontrolled in space.

You have probably seen Morning Glory vines growing upward, spiraling
around a pole. This is thanks to circumnutation, which also has
something to do with gravity. Previous studies have shown that stem
circumnutation requires an endodermis, surrounding vascular tissue and
made up of gravisensing cells. In a nutshell, without the so-called
SCARECROW gene, which is essential for the proper differentiation of
endodermal cells, the Morning Glory cannot sense gravity, and as a
result, cannot circumnutate – its vines cannot twine. This indicates
that circumnutation and spiral growth are gravity-dependent phenomena. I
am very much looking forward to seeing whether circumnutation, or
twining of vine plants, can be observed in the weightlessness of space.!

Peg formation on cucurbits – the plant family that includes cucumbers,
melons and squash – is also influenced by gravity. A peg, which is a
small protuberance, develops immediately after germination in the
transition zone between root and stem . On Earth, the downward growth
(gravitropism) of the roots results in a curvature at the transition
zone. When seeds germinate in a horizontal or inclined position, a peg
develops on the lower, concave side of the bending transition zone at an
early stage of seedling growth. As such, it had been presumed that peg
formation was regulated by gravity. When we germinated cucumber seeds in
space , a peg formed on each side of the transition zone, showing that
pegs develop with or without gravity. In other words, cucumber seedlings
have the innate ability to develop two pegs, but on Earth, the seedlings
suppress peg formation on the upper side of the inclined transition zone
in response to gravity, which causes unilateral placement of the peg in
cucumber seedlings. This gravity regulation has something to do with
auxin, the plant hormone I mentioned earlier.

To sum up, plant life depends on gravity, and auxin transport, which is
regulated by gravity, plays an important role. It is thought that in the
weightlessness of space the absence of gravity to regulate auxin
transport results in abnormal growth and development of plants. However,
exactly how gravity regulates auxin transport remains unknown. When this
mechanism is understood, it will not only improve plant production on
Earth, but will also help with plant cultivation in space. So, it is
very important to perform space experiments that will clarify the
mechanisms of plant growth and development.Dr. Hideyuki
Takahashi
Professor, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku
UniversityIn 1982, Dr. Takahashi received his Ph.D. in Agriculture from
the Graduate School of Agricultural Science at Tohoku University, and a
postdoctoral fellowship at the Department of Biology at Wake Forest
University, in North Carolina, USA. He was a research associate at the
Institute for Agricultural Research at Tohoku University from 1985 to
1987, and at the Institute of Genetic Ecology at Tohoku University in

  1. The following year he was a visiting fellow at the Department of
    Biology of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (North
    Carolina, USA). Subsequently, Dr. Takahashi was appointed associate
    professor, and as of 1996, a full professor, at the Institute of Genetic
    Ecology at Tohoku University. He has been in his current position since
    2001.

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